Nora Black was arrested twice between 1910 and 1911. Her first arrest was on Black Friday, November 10th 1911. As discussed in an earlier blog all the charges were dropped when the government came under close scrutiny for the way the women were treated. On both occasions she gave her address as WSPU headquarters, Clement’s Inn. Her second arrest on November 25th 1911 was for breaking a window at the Privy Council offices to a value of £2 6d. In her defence she stated that she had taken this action as it was the only form of intelligence the government understood. She was fined 10 shillings plus the cost of repairing the window or seven days in prison. Without an age or address no further information has been found.
Charlotte Blacklock was a member of the Chelsea Branch of the WSPU. In the November 19th 1908 addition of Votes for Women she writes about the members parading the streets of Chelsea “wearing placards of purple, green and white..acting the part of sandwich men.” [i] Born in 1857 in Brighton she was the daughter of Joseph and Emma Blacklock. In the 1861 census return Joseph describes himself as chemist, druggist and soda water manufacturer. In 1876 Joseph died and Emma continued running the business with as he got older assistance from her eldest son Philip. Charlotte is not recorded on the census returns as having an occupation until the 1891 where she is stated to be a governess. From thereafter she does not appear on any census return. It maybe that working as a governess took her to Chelsea.
Charlotte was a regular columnist in Votes for Women reporting on the activities of the Chelsea branch. In the April 23rd 1909 edition she sets out the arrangements for the Chelsea Art stall and an intended visit by Laurence Housman who co-founded the Men’s League for Women’s Suffrage and was an acclaimed author. It was an artistic world that Charlotte was familiar through her relationship with her cousin, Amy Sawyer, an artist. On March 11th 1912 Charlotte was arrested for her part in a window smashing campaign being charged with damaging a window at the premises of Charles Lynton, Piccadilly valued at £6 15 shillings. Her defence informed the court that the value of the window was significantly smaller than that alleged. One hundred and twenty-six women were arrested having caused an alleged £4000 of damage. Charlotte was sentenced to four months imprisonment, a harsh sentence of a first offence. She went on hunger strike and was force fed. The WSPU awarded her a hunger strike medal which is now part of the collection at the Museum of Australian Democracy along with a portrait painted by her cousin Amy Sawyer. Charlotte moved in 1918 to Ditchling, Sussex. She died in 1931.
Violet Bland was born in 1863, the eldest child of William and Violet. The family lived in the village of Bayston Hill, a few miles south of Shrewsbury, Shropshire where her father worked as a labourer. As was often the way Violet left home and was employed as a kitchen maid at Dudmaston Hall about thirty miles from her family home.
No trace of Violet can be found until the early 1900s when she ran Henley Park Grove, a substantial house, as a Ladies College of Domestic Science from 1904 to 1911[ii] to the north of Bristol. In advertisements under the title of Ladies College is included Home for Health and Culture. Lectures were hosted by the Secretary of the Vegetarian Society, a Christmas party was promoted running from December 23rd 1904 to January 9th 1905 which included classes in hygienic cooking and food values for a cost of 35 shillings a week, this rose to 2 guineas a week if Swedish gymnastics and dancing classes were required. Lectures were to be held on subjects such as Uric Acid in Relation to Health or How the Vegetable World replaces the Animal World.
By 1906 Violet was no longer advertising the Ladies College but was offering first class board and lodgings complete with tennis and croquet. Over the year the advertisement altered drawing attention to the fact the property was heated in the winter and there was a gymnasium. The ever entrepreneurial Violet had branched out again by 1907 advertising for an attendant to assist with a rheumatic patient. Advertising for other staff who should be “useful help” explained “a boy” was “kept” already. Another required a man to tend the garden and the cow. By 1908 Violet had clearly moved far away from the original business selling off folding college beds and hockey sticks with pads described as nearly new. At the same time the Bristol authorities were planning to buy the house and open a hostel for men attending the Bristol Training College. Violet continued to sell off equipment from the school.
Violet joined the WSPU in Bristol. Lillian Dove Wilcox was also a member who was arrested in 1909 for being part of a deputation to the House of Commons. She was sentenced to one month in prison. She went on hunger strike. When her release date was known the women of the Bristol WSPU organised a reception committee to meet Lilian and Mary Allen, another released suffragette, off the train and accompany them in a procession to Violet’s house where refreshments were provided. One of the guests of honour was Annie Kenney who addressed the reception and along with Violet presented the ex-prisoners with leather belts with silver buckles. Violet spoke of the public spirit and endurance shown by the women.
In the Western Daily Press dated August 27th 1910 an advertisement was placed selling off furniture and effects from the house including twenty-one beds and over fifty chairs which indicates the size of the house. Not long afterwards Violet moved to London and opened a boarding house in central London.
Violet was first arrested for her part in Black Friday when the government dropped the charges against the women. The second arrest in March 1912 was alongside Ethel Baldock [see blog Three Bakers Two Baldocks]. They were jointly accused of breaking a window worth £10 at the Commercial Cable Company in Northumberland Avenue, London. Violet was sentenced to four months and was removed to Aylesbury Prison. In the July 5th 1912 edition of Votes for Women Violet described being force feed “They pinched and clutched my nose unmercifully …. and I did not rise quickly from the chair … they snatched the chair from under me, and flung me on the floor…. There is no doubt whatever about the attacks being made with the object of breaking us down… They twisted my neck, jerked my head back.. but pour it [the food] into one’s stomach .. They expect .. to perform the whole operation in two minutes. There were always six or seven to one..”
One her release Violet continued to run her West End boarding house. She died in 1940.
[i] Votes for Women November 19th 1908
[ii] The Heneleaze Book: Veronica Bowerman
Comments by email: Actually we do have some record of Violet Ann Bland, my great aunt, after her time in Dudmaston. She moved to Cirencester where she ran a guest house at 24 Victoria road; then a boutique hotel in (the Queen Anne) Gloucester House. Before long she owned three houses in Cirencester, renting out two of them--before moving to Henley Grove in Bristol.
The Illusive Pimpernel
Norah Binnie was arrested on April 1st 1909. She joined the Women’s Social and Political Union in May the previous year. In June of that year she assisted Sylvia Pankhurst in organising a suffragette procession in Chelsea. On March 30th 1909 a large number of women gathered at Caxton Hall, Westminster for a women’s Parliament. Emmeline and Christine Pankhurst stood on the platform and addressed the gathering. It was resolved that a deputation would carry a resolution to the House of Commons to be handed directly to Herbert Asquith stating that women demanded the vote. Norah was one of the women chosen to participate. The women swiftly met a police cordon which some managed to break through. Although they failed in handing the resolution to Asquith they did succeed in placing it in an envelope and leaving it at the door.
At that stage the march was peaceful but as the police closed in arrests took place, one of them was Norah who was charged with obstruction. In court she gave her address as the WSPU headquarters. Found guilty of obstruction refusing to be bound over she was imprisoned for one month. It is not clear whether she served all or part of her sentence.
Norah was the youngest daughter of Sir Alexander and Lady Binnie. Born in 1885 she had two elder sisters and two elder brothers the younger of whom was five years older than her. Her father was a civil engineer who became chief engineer for the London County Council. He was responsible for projects such as the Greenwich foot tunnel under the River Thames and Vauxhall Bridge. He was knighted by Queen Victoria for his services to engineering. Norah’s mother died when Norah was sixteen years old. After her brush with the law there is no further record of Norah being politically active. Two years later on April 8th 1911 she married Cecil Thomas Carr, a barrister. He was appointed counsel to the Speaker of the House of Commons in 1943 and made a significant contribution to administrative law. His father was a wealthy woollen manufacturer and Cecil went to Cambridge University before joining the Bar. He served during World War One and was knighted in 1939. In December 1940 Cecil and Norah survived a torpedo attack on the ship they were sailing although fifteen people were lost. Cecil died in 1956 and Norah in 1979. They did not have any children.
The next entry is for “Miss Black” who was arrested on December 22nd 1913 in Cheltenham. She was charged alongside another woman who gave her name as “Miss Red”. They were charged with setting fire to Alstone Lawn, an unoccupied mansion, owned by Colonel De Sales La Terriere whose mother had lived who had lived in the house as a child and adult. A beautiful substantial house it had been placed on the market when the Colonel inherited it but had failed to sell as the area surrounding it was becoming less rural. The fire was brought under control swiftly but not without damage to the roof which was left with a hole in it and the staircase which was completely destroyed. The two charged women were said to have arrived in Cheltenham by train from Birmingham on the day of the fire. It was found that paraffin had been sprinkled at the seat of the crime and that footprints led away to the door. Suffragette literature was found in the house and the two women who were said to be wearing clothes that smelt strongly of paraffin were arrested the next day. The damage was estimated at £400. The house was left empty and later demolished.
The two appeared in court bare foot with long loose hair, other than commenting on man-made laws they said nothing. They were taken to Worcester jail pending a full hearing. Miss Red was later identified as Lilian Lenton, the Illusive Pimpernel. On Christmas Day the pair were released on licence under the provisions of the Cat and Mouse Act as they were refusing food or drink. They failed to appear in court for the trial at the beginning of January 1914. The police applied to the court for a warrant for their arrest to which the magistrate pointed out none was necessary for an arrest if they had been released under the provisions of the Cat and Mouse Act. The police replied that they had been specifically directed by the Home Office to request a warrant. The magistrate, although perplexed by the police’s insistence, complied and issued a warrant.
The pair were not without front as a couple of weeks later a solicitor appeared before the same court requesting the return of a postal order, jewellery and money found on the women when they were arrested. On being questioned as from whom he had received his instructions the solicitor stated it was a representative of the two women whose names he did not know. Not unsurprisingly the request was denied.
In a BBC interview first aired on January 1 1960[i] Lilian described her escape. When the women were released on licence under the Cat and Mouse Act they would be delivered, often by the police, to a house where they were to remain until their health sufficiently recovered for them to be returned to prison. Whilst in residence the house would be placed under police surveillance. In the interview Lilian states that her speciality was “escapes” from these houses often under the noses of the police. Lilian, who does not mention Miss Black, was taken by the police to house in Birmingham on Christmas Day. Being a day of festivities there was a delay of a few minutes before the Birmingham police arrived to place the house under surveillance during which Lilian escaped. To her amusement the police duly arrived and surrounded the house not realising she had already fled.
Lilian was identified from fingerprint evidence connecting her to a fire at Kew Gardens. Although this does not follow alphabetically it seems an appropriate place to write about Lillian who is also included in the arrest record as Ida Inkley, May Dennis or unknown woman. She is on the Roll of Honour of Suffragette Prisoners twice as Lilian and as Ida.
Her first arrest was March 3rd 1912 when she gave her name as Ida Inkley from Slough. Born Lilian Ida Lenton in 1891 she was the eldest daughter of Isaac, a carpenter and joiner and Mahalah Lenton. She grew up in Leicester becoming a dancer adopting the stage name Ida Inkley. Lilian joined the Women’s Social and Political Union early in 1912 and shortly afterwards she was sentenced to two months imprisonment for smashing windows in Oxford Street, a harsh sentence for what appears to be a first offence. Imprisoned alongside May Billinghurst in Holloway prison she held May, who concealed stones under her rug which kept her warm in her invalid tricycle, in high regard and they struck up a friendship which last until May died. Lilian wrote a moving tribute to May when she died in 1953.
On February 20th 1913 Lilian was arrested alongside Joyce Locke [aka Olive Wharry] charged arson in respect of the destruction by fire of the tea rooms at Kew Gardens. A policeman stated he had seen them fleeing the scene and dropping a portmanteau which was found to contain among other things cloth smelling strongly of paraffin. Suffrage literature was found near the building. The police recommended that bail should not be granted to which Lilian grabbed some paperwork and threw it at the magistrate. Forcibly removed from court the two women were remanded in custody. The damage was estimated to be in the region of £1000.
Lilian immediately went on hunger strike and was freed only a few days later when the process of being force fed and allowed food into her lungs causing pleurisy. She was taken to the family home of May Billinghurst in Barnes. Released quicker than anticipated no plans had been put in place for Lilian to escape. As she was sick an ambulance was summoned and another woman purporting to be Lillian was taken away. Only a couple of policemen were left at the house as it was believed she had left. Lilian then dashed across the road towards a moving bus which she jumped onto. The policemen gave chase shouting but the bus driver oblivious to the commotion continued on his way.
Joyce was brought before the magistrate. She had also been force fed but not released. Lilian, on the run, did not appear. The counsel for the Crown stated that the Home Secretary had been informed that Lilian would “infallibly die” unless she was released and thus he had ordered her liberty from Holloway prison. A warrant was issued for her arrest and the magistrate expressed his astonishment at this turn of events. Joyce was released on bail of £1000 pending trial.
Enquiries were made at the headquarters of the WSPU as to Lilian’s whereabouts but on being informed she was still dangerously ill it was decided not to implement the warrant. The resulting protests in the press led the Home Office to issue a statement which made it clear that the Home Secretary had had three choices to let her die, force feed her which could have caused her death given the state of her health or release her on licence. Joyce meanwhile was tried and found guilty being ordered to pay the trial costs, damages and spend eighteen months in prison.
The release of Lilian and the general question regarding the correctness of releasing prisoners who were force feed and too ill to remain in prison rumbled on. In the House of Commons questions were asked of the Home Secretary by several MPs who felt that he was failing to uphold the rule of law where the suffragettes were concerned. Three doctors wrote to the Times reiterating the claim that Lilian had been made gravely ill by process of force feeding and using this case as an example to condemn force feeding. According to the Home Secretary he had spoken with Lilian’s own doctor who was of the view that the pleurisy was not caused by the factors cited by the three doctors who had not in fact examined her. The government was in a difficult position not wishing the women to starve themselves to death thus becoming martyrs.
Throughout all the furore Lilian remained on the run even if the Home Office believed she was recuperating. She made a dramatic reappearance during a trial at the Doncaster courts for burglary with the intent of burning down a house. May Dennis was called as a defence witness and announced that it was in fact she who had committed the offence not one of the defendants. It was then discovered that May was actually Lilian or Ida. She was remanded in custody charged with entering Westerfield Manor with the intent of setting fire to the premises. The charges against one of the original accused were dropped but those against Harry Johnson, a sixteen year old, stood. He and Lilian had been disturbed by an elderly housekeeper who they reassured by informing her they were part of the suffragette movement. Lilian, who refused to any information or recognise the authority of the court at the trial, gave a speech to the jury throughout the whole proceedings. She was sentenced to one year and Harry a year’s hard labour.
Lilian held in Armley Gaol went on hunger strike. After seven days the hospital doctor signed the paperwork releasing her on licence to allow her health to recover. Perhaps in light of previous events no attempt was made to force feed her. She was taken to house of a suffragette in Leeds which was surrounded by police. Lilian remained there only a few hours before escaping. A fellow suffragette Elsie Duval came in through the back door dressed as an errand boy eating an apple and carrying a large and heavy hamper. Lilian swopped clothing with Elsie and went out carrying the now empty hamper and eating the apple. She jumper into a cart and disappeared. Travelling by taxi to Harrogate and then Scarborough she then adopted the disguise of a children’s nurse carrying the baby son of a fellow WSPU member. On arrival at the station a policeman helpfully opened the taxi door where upon Lilian heard behind the child to prevent the officer recognising her. From there she took a train to Edinburgh.
Lilian alluded the police until October 7th when she was arrested at Paddington Station collecting a bicycle from left luggage. She was formally charged with the fire at Kew Gardens. Sent to gaol on remand Lilian again went on hunger strike and was released again on licence. The press named her the “elusive suffragette” when again she escaped and disappeared. She next appeared when she was arrested in Cheltenham. On May 4th 1914 she was spotted walking down the street in Birkenhead by an eagle eyed detective and arrested. She was taken to Armdale Goal to await trial refusing food both at the police station and the gaol. At her trial she adopted the same tactic of addressing the jury throughout including sentencing to twelve months imprisonment. On May 12th having again refused food she was released on licence. By this point she had such a high profile the Home Secretary was left with little choice. She was taken to a house which was heavily guarded by police. The day before she was due to return to prison fifty veiled women arrived at the front door and were admitted one by one. When they left they did so in one big group the police had no means of knowing if Lilian was amongst them or not nor were there sufficient men to follow every woman. Again she had successfully given them the slip.
According to an interview Lilian gave to the BBC in October 1961 when she escaped she fled to the Lake District where she met D H Lawrence who was described as having only one thing on his mind. Later she read Lady Chatterley’s Lover and said she could not remember anything special about it. The women were all technically freed on the outbreak of the First World War. Lilian served as an orderly during the war with the Scottish Women’s Hospital Unit. After the war she worked in Norway and was a spokesperson for the Save the Children Fund. She continued to be interviewed on the campaign. She died in 1972.
Evelyn Billings record states that she was arrested twice on July 28th 1913 and August 11th 1913. Next to the first entry is a pencil star which refers to a footnote stating that no records have been found relating to the first arrest on her file. This seems to be an administrative error as the first arrest is recorded in the newspapers. Evelyn’s surname is variously spelt with and without an “s”. The correct spelling appears to be Billing as included in advertisements in suffrage newspapers.
Evelyn was the organiser of the West and North Kent branch of the WSPU. In January 1912 she gave a speech at a meeting of the Hastings Branch. “It was for them [Cabinet Ministers] to prove that they were dishonourable, and they pretty nearly always did it. A keen correspondent she often raise awareness of the cause by her letters to the press. She wrote to the Kent and Sussex Courier asking women to write to their Members of Parliament to protest at the force feeding of Olive Walton held in Aylesbury Gaol.
In July 1912 she travelled to London to take part in a protest in Trafalgar Square against the operation of the Cat and Mouse Act and the re arrest of Sylvia Pankhurst. Thirteen women and eleven men were arrested and charged, Evelyn with obstruction. According to the police Evelyn incited the crowd crying “Come on, men.” She then proceeded to grab a walking stick ran into Great Scotland Yard yelling to the crowd to follow her and break the windows at the Liberal Club. To this evidence Evelyn responded that it was all lies and raised a legal objection in that she understood there needed to be three witnesses for an offence to be proven. The magistrate pointed out this was incorrect to which Evelyn replied “Very well- I’ll find out for the next time, and we’ll get along”. The policeman “..has got the author’s brain and has invented a great yarn”. She was fined forty shillings or one month’s imprisonment. Evelyn shouted “Where are your witnesses?” and had to be forcibly removed from the court.
It appears that Evelyn did not go to goal as only a few weeks later she was arrested again for her part in an attempt to enter Downing Street. The crowd were described variously by the police as a mob or almost a riot. Evelyn was charged with obstruction and assault. A policeman attested that she had attempted to break through a cordon striking a policeman in the face. Evelyn argued that the police were in fact obstructing the crowd not the other way round, the magistrate whilst not agreeing with the argument decided to concentrate on the assault charge. Evelyn stated she was a “marked woman” and that when she had been arrested previously she had been assaulted by police officers. This the magistrate stated “...was futile and irrelevant” sentencing her to a fine or one month in prison. Evelyn stated her intent to go on hunger strike.
Whether Evelyn did or did not go on hunger strike is unknown but she did elect to go to prison. On her release she continued campaigning. In the October 25th 1913 edition of the Bexhill on Sea Observer a letter was published written in response to a speech given by the Bishop of Chichester at the Diocesan Conference. First Evelyn responded to the Bishop’s contention that women should not be elected to the synod, legislative council, of the church by outlining in detail why his argument was incorrect. It would be another nearly eighty years before the first women priests were ordained. The Bishop had referred to a “filthy” paper which Evelyn believed he meant the Suffragette newspaper which had recently included informative articles on venereal disease highlighting in particular the way married women could be infected by unfaithful husbands suffering in silence due to the collusion of male doctors. She attacked the church’s lack of desire to recognise this or poverty. “..Suffragists and Trade Unions are on the warpath, while the Church sleeps-or scoffs.” This impassioned conclusion sums up the actual underlining motive of many campaigners. They wanted the vote not for its own sake but to have a voice to raise awareness of poverty, disease or injustice.
No biographical information is given in any press report, the only clue is her role of organiser of the West and North Kent WSPU. When arrested she gave her address as the WSPU headquarters. Evelyn does not appear on the Roll of Honour of Suffragette Prisoners and no further personal information has been located.
Teresa Billington was arrested twice on June 21st 1906 and October 24th 1906. Teresa was born in Preston, Lancashire to a devout Roman Catholic family in 1877, she strongly opposed her family’s religious values becoming an agnostic. She eventually ran her away from home, went to night school and trained to be a teacher. Her refusal to teach religious studies lessons brought her into conflict with the authorities who summoned her to appear before the Manchester Education Committee. Emmeline Pankhurst heard her case and arranged for her to teach at a Jewish school where she would no longer be called upon to teach religious studies. Whilst studying for a degree alongside teaching Teresa became involved in the University of Manchester Settlement based in a deprived area of Manchester, Ancoats. The idea behind the Settlement was to bring learning to the community whilst exposing the more privileged to the impact of poverty on a community. Like so many of the suffragettes this exposure was to spur Teresa into campaigning for the vote.
A committed feminist Teresa was one of the first to join the Women’s Social and Political Union of which in due course she became an organiser having first served as an organiser of the Independent Labour Party. By 1905 Teresa was a regularly speaker on the Women’s Enfranchisement Bill or other topics such as Socialism and the Women’s Question. In April 1906 she was part of a group of women including Annie Kenney who gained access to the Ladies Gallery in the House of Commons during the debate on the Enfranchisement Bill. Their cries of protest led to them being forcibly removed but they were not charged with any offence.
In June 1906 Herbert Asquith was due to address a meeting of the Liberal Party. All week Teresa accompanied by Annie Kenney campaigned to raise awareness of their cause ahead of the meeting handing out fliers which read “Come in crowds to oppose Asquith, the enemy of liberty and justice.” They were joined by Emmeline Pankhurst later in the week. All three gained entry to the meeting. As soon as Asquith rose to speak they attempted to drown him out. Members of the audience and stewards bundled the women out of the hall. One newspaper report claimed Teresa produced a whip from under her skirt and lashed out with it. Given she was not charged with any offence and no other newspaper reports this this may well be an embellishment. After she was ejected Emmeline rose to protest and when she was shouted down and removed others took her place to continue interrupting.
Only a week later Teresa attempted to knock on Asquith’s front door in Cavendish Square, London. When she refused to move on she was arrested and charged with disorderly conduct and inciting others. In court she refused to enter a plea or give any personal details on the basis that the courts were there to apply laws made by men and therefore had no jurisdiction over women. She was fined £10 or two months imprisonment which was later reduced to £5 or one month imprisonment. She did not serve much of her sentence as an anonymous sympathiser presented herself at Holloway Prison and paid the fine stating that the trial and initial imprisonment had raised the profile of the cause sufficiently negating the need to serve anymore of the sentence. Amusingly she was made to pay the full fine of £10 as the prison authorities were not aware of any reduction, they would in due course refund the difference if it proved to be true.
Alongside her hands on actions Teresa wrote many letters to the national press and articles explaining the rationale of the women’s actions. The Militant Policy of Women Suffragists outlined the reasons why women felt they had the right to protest. Her campaigning took its toll in The Woman and the Whip she wrote of leaving meetings “‘in a state of nervous humiliation, shocked, weeping, and shuddering.’[i] These feelings did not deter her and after her release from prison she continued campaigning addressing meetings during a tour of Scotland. By October Teresa had returned to London joining an attempt to enter the House of Commons. She was arrested and charged with using insulting and threatening language likely to lead to a breach of the peace. The court hearing was chaotic with one woman being arrested at the court. All of the women were fined but on refusing collectively to pay were sent to prison for two months. They were all released having served one month.
Teresa returned to the campaign trial visiting the North of England and Scotland. During her work in Scotland she had met Frederick Lewis Greig, the manager of a billiard supplies company to whom she became engaged to much comment in the press that she had broken her vow not to marry until women obtained the vote. The reality was that she had told Frederick she would give a further year to the campaign before she wed. She married Frederick in Scotland in February 1907 in a low key ceremony intended to prevent journalists attending, the groom reportedly was working until an hour before the nuptials. In a very modern move they combined their surnames becoming Billington Greig. The couple went on to have one daughter, Fiona, born in 1915.
Teresa was straight back on the campaign trail after her marriage continuing to give talks and write to the newspapers. At a meeting of the WSPU in June 1907 she was presented with a belated wedding present, a typewriter, presented by Charlotte Despard. At the September conference of the WSPU the Emmeline Pankhurst stated her intent to run the organisation without any meddling from doubters of in particular the tendency of the leadership to take decisions without consultation. Charlotte Despard questioned this stance and Emmeline invited those who challenged her authority to found an organisation of their own. Teresa amongst others joined Charlotte and left forming the Women’s Freedom League.
The campaign continued with both organisations pushing their message but in different ways. In February 1910 Teresa, travelling to Scotland, was injured when the train she was travelling on hit a landslide derailing the train and sending some of the carriages into the sea. She sustained wrist and ankle injuries. Whilst continuing to question the leadership of the WSPU she became disenchanted with the Women’s Freedom League citing their “weak intimidation.” Thus largely independent of any group she campaigned by writing articles and books such as Women and the Machine published in 1913.
With the dawn of the First World War Teresa she organised in Glasgow billiards afternoons for women where they could enjoy demonstrations, talks and playing to raise funds for the Sportsmen’s Ambulance Fund. In 1928 she returned to the fray campaigning for more women Members of Parliament.
She died in 1964.